Ecosystem health is a new approach used in environmental management . A healthy ecosystem has three main features: vigor, resilience and organization . It is an environment that maintains biodiversity, is relatively stable and is resilient to change . In the ANZECC/ARMCANZ guidelines  ecosystem ‘health’ ‘refers to the condition and functioning of an ecosystem in comparison to conditions and function that are thought to be normal’ . One of the principles to emerge from the United Nation Conference on Economic Development and Environment, was the desire to find the means to protect the health and integrity of the Earth’s ecosystems .
- Costanza, R., B. Norton, B. Haskell (eds.) 1992. Ecosystem Health: New Goals for Environmental Management. Island Press, Washington, D.C.
- Mageau, M.T., R. Costanza and R.E. Ulanowicz 1995. The development and initial testing of a quantitative assessment of ecosystem health. Ecosystem Health 1(4):201-213.
- Rapport, D.J., C. Gaudet and P. Calow (eds.) 1995. Evaluating and Monitoring the Health of Large-Scale Ecosystems. Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg.
- page 3-20 in the ANZECC/ARMCANZ (October 2000) Australian Guidelines for Fresh and Marine Water Quality.
- United Nations 1992. Adoption of Agreements on Environment and Development: the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development. UNEPA/CONF.151/5/Rev. 1. 13 June 1992
- ANZECC/ARMCANZ (October 2000) Australian Guidelines for Fresh and Marine Water Quality.